한국조세재정연구원 - OAK리포지터리

Korea Institute of Public Finance
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정치구조가 조세·재정정책에 미치는 영향 cover image

정치구조가 조세·재정정책에 미치는 영향

Keyword
정치, 조세, 소득재분배, 출산장려금, 불완전정보, 정치적 경기순환, 세제개편, 재정
Title
정치구조가 조세·재정정책에 미치는 영향
Authors
김지영; 박상원; 송호신; 성명재; 전병힐; 조명환
Issue Date
2010-12-01
Publisher
KIPF
Citation
pp. 258
Abstract
Topic 1: The Role of the Legislature and the Executive in Annual Tax Changes



Sangwon Park



This study aims to determine the role of the legislature and the executive in annual tax changes in Korea. Every year the ministry of strategy and finance in the executive announces the plan of annual tax changes and submits tax bills to the national assembly. The legislature examines them and modifies, rejects, or passes the bills. We compare the initial suggestion of the executive and the final tax bill passed by the legislature and find the followings. First, the tax abatement and exemption is the one which the legislature modifies the executive's tax proposal most. Second, certain items have been repeatedly at issue during amendment. Third, the legislature tends to cut tax burden relatively, Last, the frequency of the legislature's modification depends a lot on the ruling party's share in the assembly.



Topic 2: Estimation and Comparison of Income and Income Tax Distribution, and its Redistributive Effects by Each Administrative Governments in Korea



Myung Jae Sung



This paper is to estimate and compare the distributions of income and income tax incidence derived by the changes in related tax laws by the administrative governments from YoungSam (YS) through DaeJoong (DJ and Muhyeon (MH) to MyungBak (MB) administrative governments in Korea in terms of distributional characteristics and income redistribution. The administrative governments emphasizing equity and redistribution issues tended to change the related tax laws towards increasing progressivity of income tax burden, while those emphasizing efficiency and competition tended to relieve income tax burden. The redistributive effects through income taxation became smaller in the YS, DJ and MB administrative governments, while they were inflated in the MH administrative government. The redistributive effects turned out to depend heavily on the changes in effective income tax rate. Unlike the perception conceived by the general public, the progressivity of tax burden is negatively correlated with its income redistributive effects. This is mainly because the progressivity of income tax is too high in Korea. High progressivity implies high concentration of income tax burden. In order to increase the redistributive effects of income tax, it is recommended to increase the income tax revenue especially of the middle income classes the effective tax burdens of which are quite low. This can be done by lowering the income tax exemption level. In this case, it is inevitable to face lowered progressivity and potentially severe tax resistance.



Topic 3: The Effect of the Elections on Government Expenditure in Korea



Hosin Song and Byung-Hill Jun



In this study, we attempt to estimate the effect of the elections on government expenditure in Korea. In particular, we focus on local government elections as well as the direct presidential elections. We find that the association between presidential elections and general government expenditure has been weakened and that some local government expenditures have shown cyclical behavior according to the timing of the election.



Topic 4: The Effect of the Political and Populational Structure on Introduction of Childbirth Grants of Local Governments.



Jiyoung Kim



This paper explains what determined the introduction of childbirth grants across local governments in Korea. The childbirth grant is a one-time cash grant that a local government provides to its resident who gives birth. In Korea, local governments make decisions on the childbirth grants autonomously. They decide the implementation and the budget size of the grants. And the funding is financed by local governments without supports from the central government. Many Korean local governments in the rural area began to implement the childbirth grant in the early 2000s, and it is now widespread throughout the country. Consequently, 145 out of 230 local governments have adopted the childbirth grant. Using a cross-sectional regression analysis, I investigate the relationship between the introduction of the childbirth grants and the political characteristics of the locality. The result shows that the locality whose governor belonged to the ruling party had higher probability to adopt the childbirth grant. It was less likely to introduce the childbirth grants if one party was dominating the local government and the council. Also the share of the women in childbearing age affected the probability to introduce the childbirth grants.



Topic 5: Who should control the local government's fiscal policy under asymmetric information?



Myeonghwan Cho



This chapter studies the efficiency of the intergovernmental fiscal transfers under the asymmetric information. In the model, the local tax revenue is a private information to each local government. If the uncertainty of local tax revenues is high enough, the local governments have an advantage, and otherwise the central government has an advantage to determine the amount of intergovernmental transfers. In addition, if the central government cannot verify the local governments’ announcements, they do not voluntarily disclose any information about their private information.
Keywords
정치, 조세, 소득재분배, 출산장려금, 불완전정보, 정치적 경기순환, 세제개편, 재정
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